Thursday, February 2, 2023

25th Series of Univocity

Deleuze gives his ontology in this series as Univocity or Univocal Being. "The univocity of Being signifies that Being is Voice, that it is said, and that it is said in one and the same "sense" of everything about which it is said." This sense is that of the eternal return.

With the affirmation of divergence and disjunction as a positive synthesis, the problem has changed. It no longer appears as the alogical compatibility or incompatibility of events between each other. All events are compatible with other events. They only become incompatible with individuals, persons, or worlds. The problem now gets stated as: "knowing how the individual would be able to transcend his form and his syntactical link to a world in order to attain to the universal communication of events." Further study on Univocity can be found in Difference and Repetition, p. 35 - 42 and p. 303-304 Columbia edition. Delezue ends Difference and Repetition discussing univocal being and the eternal return.

Thursday, January 5, 2023

24th Series of the Communication of Events

Deleuze begins this series by examining causality dividing it into the causality of bodies in their depths (and the depths can go down to the quantum level), and the causality from the incorporeal effects that result - quasi-causality. Destiny results from both causes from bodies and quasi-causality. The former acts from necessity, but this shifts in quasi-causality to expression. Moving from necessity to expression suggests free will. "The Stoic paradox is to affirm destiny while denying necessity."

What are these expressive relations of events? Events appear to have relations of compatibility and incompatibility with one another. Chyrsippus looked at hypothetical propositions with conjunctions and disjunctions (eg. If it is light, it is day) and concluded they expressed their relation as a non-casual correspondence. "Astrology was perhaps the first important attempt to establish a theory of "alogical incompatibilities and non-causal correspondences. Deleuze examines identity and contradiction. Is that necessary for events? Moves to Leibniz and compossible and incompossible worlds. Moves away from Lebiniz because he excludes predicates of incompossible worlds from each other. Deleuze wants to affirm their difference have them communicate through each other through resonance. When their difference gets affirmed, but not conjoined, he calls this a disjunctive synthesis. Three kinds of synthesis: 1. connective synthesis ( "if ... ,then ...") which forms a single series. 2. conjunctive synthesis ("and) forming convergent series (worlds). 3 Disjunctive synthesis (either/or) which distributes the divergent series. Example of Nietzsche affirming the difference between his sickness and health by his gaining the know-how of reversing perspectives. Recommended reading: It helps a lot to read two of the books Deleuze cited in the previous Series - the chapter on Zeno (beginning of Book 7) from Lives of Eminent Philosophers by Diogenes Laertius and "Meditations" by Marcus Aurelius.
Also, cited in this Series, De Fato by Cicero. You can read this here.

The paper, Cicero's "De Fato" in Deleuze's "Logic of Sense" by Michael James Bennett shows the basis of quasi-causality in Stoic thought. A pdf can be downloaded here.

For more on the disjunctive synthesis, Deleuze cites the third appendix in Logic of Sense called Klossowski or Bodies-Language.